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CPANCF.COM  Articles and Archives Pages  updated 8/10/23

Clinical Psychology Associates of North Central Florida

2121 NW 40th Terr Suite B. Gainesville FL 32605   352-336-2888    Gainesville - Ocala

Ernest J. Bordini, Ph.D., Executive Director                                                                                                                Pediatric and Adult, Clinical and Forensic Neuropsychological Assessment

The linked website resources were originally compiled in July 2009 by Randi Most, Ph.D., an experienced neuropsychologist in private practice in Jacksonville, Florida.  It was compiled from suggestions for resources for people with memory problems made from neuropsychologists subscribing to a large national neuropsychology list-serve managed by Laura Howe, Ph.D. and others.  Additional resources and links have been added since that time.

In terms of evidence-based practice and outcomes, there has been increasing formal research on computer-based cognitive programs (CCP) that claim to improve memory and other cognitive functions. A meta-analysis of numerous studies published in PLOS ONE (2015) evaluated the effectiveness of these programs on cognitive decline in healthy older adults.  The meta-analysis suggested that CCP improves memory performance and speed of processing for those with age-related cognitive decline, the programs did not indicate much evidence for improving executive functions (such as abstract reasoning, multi-tasking, cognitive flexibility, planning, organization, and inhibition). 

While the meta-analytic study provided some support that some of the gains persisted over time, other studies have not found gains in performance persisted over time.  A 2017 study in Neuroscience was referenced in a 2017 Psychology Today article also raising skepticism about computer-based memory games improving memory.

Adrian Owen (2019) tracked 11,000 adults over six-weeks and failed to find improvements in reasoning, memory, planning, and other cognitive tasks. Furthermore, an article published in Scientific American by neuroscientists concluded that scientific research does not support claims that software-based “brain games” result in any neurological changes which improve general cognitive performance.

Research continues into this area some being conducted locally at the University of Florida. A study published in BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making in 2020 described the evolution of GRADIOR, a computer-based cognitive rehabilitation program for people with mild cognitive impairment or mild dementia. 

Another 2020 study, published in Frontiers in Psychology, conducted a detailed review of technologies for cognitive training and cognitive rehabilitation for people with mild cognitive impairment and dementia. They discuss features of many programs but also note some of the research design limitations of some of the outcomes reported.  These studies provide valuable insights into the efficacy of computer-based programs for memory rehabilitation. However, it is important to note that the effectiveness of these programs can vary depending on factors such as the specific program, the population being studied, and the outcome measures used. It is always a good idea to critically evaluate the evidence before making decisions about using computer-based programs for memory rehabilitation.

In summary, when it comes to many claims of lasting benefit of computer programs improving cognitive functioning, it is best to keep in mind, buyer beware.  An alternate strategy involves more detailed neuropsychological assessment and this use of patterns of strengths and weakness to formulate compensation strategies, assistance with executive functioning through monitoring, structure, and use of technology, environmental interventions, and other accommodations to minimize impact on functioning.

We have more than 30 years of experience in conducting comprehensive neuropsychological assessments. For an appointment call 352-336-2888.


Computer-Based Cognitive Programs for Improvement of Memory (2105)

Online brain-training: does it really work? - The Guardian (2013).

Brain Training Doesn’t Make You Smarter - Scientific American (2104) 

Do Brain-Changing Games Really Work? Psychology Today (2017)

Computer-based cognitive rehabilitation program GRADIOR (2020)

Technologies for Cognitive Training and Cognitive Rehabilitation Frontiers of Psychology (2020)

Click on the links below for Readings or Websites related to improving memory. 


At this time (August 2023) we are adding material. Suggestions welcome at Three sections. including this one, will be compiled in the Help For Memory Handout  There is an older version in .pdf  format.




      My Brain Trainer

      The Brain Fitness Program

      Brain Age 2

     5 Great Games That Will Supercharge Your Brain   *FREE

     BrainBashers – puzzles, games brain teasers and optical illusions        *FREE

    Games for the Brain   *FREE


    MSN Games – puzzles, word trivia, pop culture  *FREE


    Sample Module   *FREE

    The Memory Works

    Rocky Mountain Learning Systems – brain & memory software programs


    Don’t Forget – memory games   *FREE

    Luminosity – Brain Training Games

    Wii Big Brain Academy

    Memory Booster – children

    Challenging Our Minds – cognitive enhancement system for children

    Neuroscience for Kids – memory games   *FREE


Disclaimer:  The references and links are provided for informational and educational purposes only. References do not endorse or imply any warranty as to the accuracy or suitability of material therein.  All decisions regarding medical or psychological care should be made in private consultation with a licensed professional.

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Gainesville Office: 2121 NW 40th Terr. Ste B. Gainesville, FL 32605  -   Phone: (352) 336-2888  -   Fax: (352) 371-1730
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